セツルメント運動の活動家エミリー・グリーン・ボルチと社会学 ─スラヴ移民像と同化における性役割分業─

Emily Greene Balch, a Settlement Activist, and Her Sociology : Representation of Slavic Immigrants and Gender Roles in Assimilation

公開日:2018.04.11

発行日
2018年02月28日
概要
 This thesis focuses on Emily Greene Balch (1867-1961), a female activist in American settlement movements, and looks into her representation of Slavic immigrants in her first academic book, Our Slavic Fellow Citizens, published in 1910. Balch is one of the most important activists of settlement movements in the late 19th century and the early 20th century in the U.S. As a well-educated, middle class young woman who had studied sociology and economics in a womanʼ s college, she was actively involved in social reform movements in urban areas comprising increasing population of Slavic immigrants. She had a chance to study and to conduct fieldwork in Slavic countries, then controlled by Austria-Hungary, and visited many Slavic communities in the U. S. Her interest in labor movements and social reform movements led her to analyze changing social and economic contexts of peasants in rural agricultural areas of Slavic countries as well as those of Slavic labor immigrants and their families in the U.S. Based on her fieldwork, she published her first book, Our Slavic Fellow Citizens.
 Balchʼs analysis employed the concepts of race and nation which were being formed in American society during the examined period. In addition, Balchʼs sociology was influenced by the contemporary view of assimilation and Americanism. According to Balch, Slavic immigrants were not precisely “white” race but Slavic “nations.” They were expected to be Americanized in order to be accepted in the U.S. society. Also, immigrant women were supposed to play a key role in assimilation as they could introduce American “civilized” and “scientific” ways of living and childcare in their home and community. Interestingly, Balch did not imply that male immigrants had such a role. Rather, she emphasized the possibility that male labor immigrants could cooperate with or even be unified as American laborers. This means that Slavic immigrant men and women were given a different gender role in assimilation─men in the public sphere and women in the private sphere. Still, immigrant womenʼs role in their private sphere could also be related to their effort to promote assimilation in the public sphere, which could lead to womenʼs empowerment. Moreover, Balch, stated that the social activities and experiences of men as laborers and members of their national group should be analyzed from the perspective of class. Such a view seemed to be free from narrow American or white centered view of racism or Americanism, although it was not totally unrelated to the formation of “white” ethnic identities and transnationalism among Slavic immigrants. It can also be said that Balchʼs activities in womenʼs peace movements were influenced by her experiences as a female settlement activist who worked among Slavic people.
文献等

掲載誌名・書名:

英語英米文学, No.58, pp.67-90

公開者・出版社:

中央大学英米文学会

書誌コード類:

ISSN: 0286-7710

種類
紀要
言語
日本語
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